Business Jet Charter

 

A business jet, private jet, or bizjet, or simply B.J., is a jet aircraft designed for transporting small groups of people.Business jets may be adapted for other roles, such as the evacuation of casualties or express parcel deliveries, and some are used by public bodies, government officials or the armed forces.

 

History

The Lockheed JetStar is the earliest Business Jet

1950s first flight

The Lockheed JetStar, seating ten passengers and two crew, first flew on 4 September 1957. 204 aircraft were produced from 1957 to 1978, powered by four 3,300 pounds-force (15 kN) Pratt & Whitney JT12 turbojet engines, then Garrett TFE731 turbofan for a 44,500 pounds (20.2 t) MTOW, then two General Electric CF700 turbofans.

The smaller, 17,760 pounds (8.06 t) MTOW North American Sabreliner first flew on 16 September 1958. Powered by two Pratt & Whitney JT12 turbojet engines then Garrett TFE731, more than 800 were produced from 1959 to 1982.

1960s first flight

The 1963 Learjet 23 was the first light jet                                                    The first large, long range jet was the Grumman Gulfstream II in 1966

The 25,000 pounds (11 t) MTOW British Aerospace 125 first flew on 13 August 1962, powered by two 3,000 pounds-force (13 kN) Armstrong Siddeley Viper turbojets. Its engine were replaced by Garrett TFE731, then Pratt & Whitney Canada PW300 turbofans. Almost 1,700 aircraft were produced between 1962 and 2013 after being marketed as the Hawker 800.

The 23,500 pounds (10.7 t) MTOW IAI Westwind, developed by Aero Commander, first flew on 27 January 1963, powered by two General Electric CJ610 turbojets, then Garrett TFE731. 442 were built from 1965 to 1987 and it was developed in the IAI Astra, re-branded as the Gulfstream G100.

The 29,000 pounds (13 t) MOTW Dassault Falcon 20 first flew on 4 May 1963, powered by two General Electric CF700, then Garrett ATF3 turbofans and Garrett TFE731. From 1963 to 1988, 508 were built and it is the basis of the Dassault Falcon family.

The first light jet first flew on 7 October 1963 : the Learjet 23. Powered by two 2,850 pounds-force (12.7 kN) General Electric CJ610, its 12,500 pounds (5.7 t) MTOW complies with FAR Part 23 regulations. 104 were built between 1962 and 1966 and it is the first member of the Learjet Family.

On 2 October 1966 the first large business jet first flew, the 65,500 pounds (29.7 t) MTOW Grumman Gulfstream II, powered by two 11,400 pounds-force (51 kN) Rolls-Royce Spey turbofans. From 1967 to the late 70s, 258 were built and it led to the ongoing Gulfstream Aerospace long range family.

The 11,850 pounds (5.38 t) MTOW Cessna Citation I first flew on 15 September 1969, powered by two 2,200 pounds-force (9.8 kN) Pratt & Whitney Canada JT15D turbofans. Produced between 1969 and 1985 at 689 samples, it is the first of the Cessna Citation family.

1970s first flight

The trijet Dassault Falcon 50 made its first flight the 7 November 1976. The 40,000 pounds (18 t) MTOW airplane is powered by three 3,700 pounds-force (16 kN) TFE731. With the cross-section of the Falcon 20, it is the basis of the larger Falcon 900.

On 8 November 1978, the prototype Canadair Challenger took off. The 43,000–48,000 pounds (20–22 t) MTOW craft, usually powered by two 9,200 pounds-force (41 kN) General Electric CF34, the basis of the long range Global Express family and of the Bombardier CRJ regional airliners. The 1000th Challenger has entered service in 2015.

On May 30, 1979 took off the clean-sheet 22,000 pounds (10.0 t) MTOW Cessna Citation III powered by two 3,650 pounds-force (16.2 kN) TFE731, basis of the larger Citation X.

The Mitsubishi MU-300 Diamond made its first flight on 29 August 1978. The 16,100 pounds (7.3 t) MTOW jet was powered by two 2,900 pounds-force (13 kN) JT15D. 950 has been produced, it was renamed Beechjet 400 then Hawker 400.

1980s first flight

The 1980s only saw the introduction of derivatives and no major new design.

1990s first flight

The clean-sheet Learjet 45 took off on 7 October 1995. The 21,500 pounds (9.8 t) is powered by two 3,500 pounds-force (16 kN) TFE731. 642 have been made since.

Powered by two 2,300 pounds-force (10 kN) Williams FJ44, the 12,500 pounds (5.7 t) Beechcraft Premier I light jet made its first flight on December 22, 1998. Nearly 300 has been made before the production stopped in 2013.

2000s first flight

In the opposite way of Bombardier, Embraer derived the Legacy 600 from the ERJ regional jet family. Powered by two 8,800 pounds-force (39.2 kN) Rolls-Royce AE 3007, the 50,000 pounds (22.5 t) plane took off first on March 31, 2001.

On 14 August 2001, the Bombardier Challenger 300 made its first flight. The 38,850 pounds (17.62 t) aircraft is powered by two 6,825 pounds-force (30.36 kN) HTF7000. The 500th has been delivered in 2015.

The first very light jet, the 5,950 pounds (2.70 t) MTOW Eclipse 500, took off on August 26, 2002, powered by two 900 pounds-force (4.0 kN) Pratt & Whitney Canada PW600. 260 have been produced till 2008.

It has been followed by the 8,645 pounds (3.921 t) MTOW Cessna Citation Mustang on 23 April 2005, powered by two 1,460 pounds-force (6.5 kN) Pratt & Whitney Canada PW600 and produced at more than 450.

Then the Embraer Phenom 100 made its maiden flight on 26 July 2007. The 10,500 pounds (4.75 t) MTOW airplane is powered by two 1,600 pounds-force (7.2 kN) Pratt & Whitney Canada PW600. With its Phenom 300 development, nearly 600 have been made.

Configuration

Though the early Lockheed Jetstar had four, most production business jets have two jet engines, mostly rear-mounted podded engine. If mounted below their low wing, it wouldn’t allow sufficient engine clearance without a too long landing gear. The HondaJet is the exception with its over the wing engine pods.

Dassault Falcon still builds three-engine models derived from the Falcon 50, and the very light jets market has seen the introduction of several single-engine designs such as the Cirrus SF50.

Fleet

On 1 January 2016, there were 21,342 business jets in the worldwide fleet, of which 11.1% were for sale.[3] 5-year old aircraft residual value level is at a 55% of the list price.[4] About 70% of the fleet was in North America at the end of 2011. The European market is the next largest, with growing activity in the Middle East, Asia, and Central America.[5] In 2015 the total airplane billing amounted to US$21.9 billion, and 718 business jets were delivered to customers across the globe : 199 (27.7%) by Bombardier Aerospace, 166 (23.1%) by Cessna, 154 (21.4%) by Gulfstream Aerospace, 120 (16.7%) by Embraer and 55 (7.7%) by Dassault Falcon.

In 2016 Jetcraft forecasts 7,879 unit deliveries in the next decade for $248 billion, a 31.5 $M average. Cessna should lead the numbers with 24.4% of the deliveries ahead of Bombardier with 21.8% while Gulfstream would lead the revenue market share with 30.6% ahead of Bombardier with 28%. Pratt & Whitney Canada should be the first engine supplier with 30% of the $24B revenue, in front of the current leader Rolls-Royce at 25%. Honeywell will hold 45% of the avionics $16B revenue ahead of Rockwell Collins with 37% and Garmin.

In 2016 Honeywell predicts 8,600 aircraft to be delivered during 2016-26 for a total value of $255 Billion. Its breakdown is 57% big (85% in value) – super-midsize to business liner, 21% midsize (10% in value) – light-medium to medium, and 22% small (5% in value).

For the decade starting in 2017, Aviation Week predicts 11,346 deliveries of business aircraft (jets or not) valued at $250.1 billion, with a fleet growing from 31,864 aircraft to 36,702 aircraft (64% in North America): 4,838 more at an average annual growth rate of 1.6%, with 5,835 retirements. For the coming five-year period, Textron Aviation should lead the market with a 22.8% market share, followed by Bombardier with 20.4%, Embraer with 16.6%, Gulfstream with 15%, Dassault with 8.4% then the rest of manufacturers with 16.9%. There should be 22,190 Engine deliveries, led by the Honeywell HTF7000, Williams FJ44, Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6A Medium, Pratt & Whitney Canada PW300 and the Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6A Large. The average utilization should be 365 flight hours per aircraft per year.

A 2010 study by the National Business Aviation Association found that small and midsize companies that use private jets produce a 219% higher earnings growth rate than those that strictly fly commercial

Worldwide market
YearPlanesValue ($B)average ($M)
19942782.9210.5
19953003.3511.2
19963163.8812.3
19974386.0213.7
19985157.2214
199966710.1915.3
200075211.6615.5
200178412.1215.5
200267610.4315.4
20035188.6216.6
200459210.4017.6
200575013.1617.5
200688716.5618.7
2007113719.3517
2008131721.9516.7
200987417.4420
201076718.0023.5
201169617.2624.8
201267217.1125.5
201371821.0629.3
201472222.0230.5
201571821.8730.5

Operators

There are three basic types of operators who own, manage and operate private jets.

Flight departments

Flight departments are corporate-owned operators who manage the aircraft of a specific company. Ford Motor Company, Chrysler, and Altria are examples of companies that own, maintain and operate their own fleet of private aircraft for their employees. Flight departments handle all aspects of aircraft operation and maintenance. In the United States, flight-department aircraft operate under FAR 91 operating rules.

Charter companies

Charter operators own or manage private jets for multiple clients. Like traditional flight departments, charter companies handle all aspects of aircraft operation and maintenance. However, they are not aligned with just one corporation. They manage aircraft for a private owner or corporation and also handle the sales of available flight time on the aircraft they own or manage. Maintenance services can also be provided which typically include on-site or mobile repair, major and minor routine inspections, troubleshooting assistance away from base, avionics installation and repair, jet engine and battery service, interior modifications and refurbishment, Inspection Authority (IA) qualified inspectors, aircraft planning and budgetary projections, compliance with service bulletins, aircraft storage management, record keeping and management, technical appraisal of private jet purchases, leases and lease terminations, and Part 91 or Part 135 conformity inspections.

In the United States, business aircraft may be operated under either FAR 91 as private operations for the business purposes of the owner, or under FAR 135 as commercial operations for the business purposes of a third party. One common arrangement for operational flexibility purposes is for the aircraft’s owner to operate the aircraft under FAR 91 when needed for its own purposes, and to allow a third-party charter-manager to operate it under FAR 135 when the aircraft is needed for the business purposes of third parties (such as for other entities within the corporate group of the aircraft’s owner).[10]

Aircraft charter brokers have entered the marketplace through the ease of setting up a website and business online. Aircraft charter operators are legally responsible for the safe operation of aircraft and charter brokers require no economic authority and are largely unregulated. The Department of Transportation requires that air charter brokers disclose to the consumer that they do not operate aircraft and cannot use terms like “our fleet of aircraft”, “we operate”, “our charter service” and others.[11]

Fractional ownership

Since 1996 the term “fractional jet” has been used in connection with business aircraft owned by a consortium of companies. Under such arrangements, overhead costs such as flight crew, hangarage and maintenance are split among the users.

Fractional ownership, often called “time share”, involves an individual or corporation who pays an upfront equity share for the cost of an aircraft. If four parties are involved, a partner would pay one-fourth of the aircraft price (a “quarter share”). That partner is now an equity owner in that aircraft and can sell the equity position if necessary. This also entitles the new owner to a certain number of hours of flight time on that aircraft, or any comparable aircraft in the fleet. Additional fees include monthly management fees and incidentals such as catering and ground transportation. In the United States, fractional-ownership operations may be regulated by either FAA part 91 or part 135.

Private Jet Types

Business Jets can be categorized according to their size.

Very light jets

The most sold VLJ is the Cessna Citation Mustang

The very light jet (VLJ) is a classification initiated by the release of the Eclipse 500,[ on December 31, 2006, which was originally available at around US$1.5 million, cheaper than existing business jets and comparable with turboprop airplanes. It accompanied a bubble for air taxi services, exemplified by DayJet which ceased operations on September 2008, Eclipse Aviation failed to sustain its business model and filed for bankruptcy in February 2009.

Cessna simultaneously developed the Citation Mustang, a six-place twinjet (2 crew + 4 passengers), followed by the Embraer Phenom 100  and the Honda Jet. They have a maximum takeoff weight lighter than the FAR Part 23 12,500 pounds limit, and are approved for single-pilot operation. They typically accommodate 5-7 passengers over a 965 nmi average range, with a $3.6M mean price.

Very light jets, 4 pax mission
ModelPricePaxLengthSpanint. Lint. WEnginesThrustMTOWRangeCruiseFuel/nmivar./hour
Cirrus SF50$2.0M4-630.9 ft38.3 ft9.8 ft5.1 ft1 FJ331800 lbf6,000 lb714 nmi278 kn1.6 lb$662
Eclipse 500$3.0M4-533.5 ft37.9 ft10.0 ft4.7 ft2 PW6101800 lbf6,000 lb825 nmi317 kn1.17 lb$889
Citation Mustang$3.4M5-540.6 ft43.2 ft9.8 ft4.6 ft2 PW6152920 lbf8,645 lb963 nmi301 kn1.73 lb$1,015
Phenom 100E$4.2M5-742.1 ft40.4 ft11.0 ft5.1 ft2 PW6173390 lbf10,582 lb1,050 nmi324 kn1.87 lb$1,152
HondaJet$4.5M5-642.6 ft39.8 ft12.1 ft5.0 ft2 HF1204100 lbf10,600 lb1,065 nmi361 kn1.86 lb$1,135
Cessna Citation M2$4.5M7-742.6 ft47.3 ft11.0 ft4.8 ft2 FJ443930 lbf10,700 lb1,174 nmi369 kn1.99 lb$1,395

Light jets

1800 Cessna CitationJet have been produced

Light jets have been a staple of the business jet industry since the advent of the Learjet 23 in the early 1960s. They provide access to small airports and the speed to be an effective air travel tool. Aircraft of this class include:

  • Beechcraft Premier
  • Cessna CitationJet/CJ1/2/3
  • Cessna Citation II/Bravo/Ultra/Encore
  • Hawker 400
  • Learjet 31
  • Learjet 40,
  • Phenom 300

They typically accommodate 6-8 passengers over a 1953 nmi average range, with a $9.1M mean price.

Light Jets, 4 pax mission
ModelPricePaxLengthSpanint. Lint. WEnginesThrustMTOWRangeCruiseFuel/nmvar./hour
Cessna Citation CJ3+$8.0M8-951.2 ft53.3 ft15.7 ft4.8 ft2 FJ445640 lbf13,870 lb1,802 nmi377 kn2.07 lb$1,680
SyberJet SJ30i$8.3M5-646.8 ft42.3 ft12.5 ft4.8 ft2 FJ444600 lbf13,950 lb2,205 nmi408 kn1.68 lb$1,608
Pilatus PC-24$8.9M8-1155.2 ft55.8 ft23.0 ft5.5 ft2 FJ44-4A6800 lbf17,650 lb1,949 nm425 knNANA
Phenom 300$9.0M7-1051.2 ft52.2 ft17.2 ft5.1 ft2 PW535E6720 lbf17,968 lb1,903 nmi411 kn2.34 lb$1,758
Cessna Citation CJ4$9.0M8-953.3 ft50.8 ft17.3 ft4.8 ft2 FJ447242 lbf17,110 lb1,927 nmi416 kn2.55 lb$1,970
Learjet 70$11.3M6-756.0 ft50.9 ft17.7 ft5.1 ft2 TFE7317700 lbf21500 lb1934 nm427 kn2.48 lb$2,166

Mid-size jets

Nearly 1700 BAe 125/Hawker 800 have been built

These aircraft are suitable for longer-range travel such as transcontinental flights and for travel with larger passenger capacity requirements. Aircraft of this class include:

They typically accommodate 9 passengers over a 2435 nmi average range, with a $15M mean price.

Mid-size jets, 4 pax mission
ModelPricePaxLengthSpanint. Lint. WEnginesThrustMTOWRangeCruiseFuel/nmivar./hour
Cessna Citation XLS+$12.8M9-1252.5 ft56.3 ft18.5 ft5.7 ft2 PW5458238 lb20200 lb1719 nmi395 kn3.01 lb$2,303
Learjet 75$13.8M8-958.0 ft50.9 ft19.8 ft5.1 ft2 TFE7317700 lb21500 lb1912 nmi426 kn2.51 lb$2,172
Gulfstream G150$15.7M7-956.8 ft55.6 ft17.7 ft5.8 ft2 TFE7318840 lb26100 lb2988 nmi418 kn2.96 lb$2,380
Citation Latitude$16.3M9-1062.3 ft72.3 ft21.8 ft6.4 ft2 PW30011814 lb30800 lb2658 nmi400 kn3.59 lb$2,936
Embraer Legacy 450$16.6M7-964.7 ft66.5 ft20.6 ft6.8 ft2 HTF700013080 lb35274 lb2900 nmi<462 knNA$2,789

Super mid-size jets

The most widespread super mid-size jet is the Challenger 300

Super mid-size jets feature wide-body cabin space, high-altitude capability, speed, and long range. These jets combine transatlantic capability with the speed and comfort of a wide-body, high-altitude aircraft. Aircraft of this class include:

  • Challenger 300/350
  • Citation X
  • Falcon 50
  • Gulfstream G200/G250
  • Hawker 4000

They typically accommodate 10-11 passengers over a 3282 nmi average range, with a $22.5M mean price:

Super mid-size jets, 4 pax mission
ModelPricePaxLengthSpanint. Lint. WEnginesThrustMTOWRangeCruiseFuel/nmvar./hour
Citation Sovereign+$17.9M9-1263.5 ft72.3 ft25.3 ft5.7 ft2 PW30011814 lb30775 lb3063 nmi401 kn3.16 lb$2,699
Embraer Legacy 500$20.0M8-1268.1 ft66.4 ft24.6 ft6.8 ft2 HTF700014072 lb37919 lb3125 nmi433 kn3.6 lb$3,180
Cessna Citation X+$23.4M9-1273.6 ft69.2 ft25.2 ft5.7 ft2 AE300714068 lb36600 lb3370 nmi465 kn3.31 lb$4,099
Gulfstream G280$24.5M10-1966.8 ft63.0 ft25.8 ft7.2 ft2 HTF700015248 lb39600 lb3600 nmi452 kn3.55 lb$3,163
Challenger 350$26.7M9-1168.7 ft69.0 ft25.2 ft7.2 ft2 HTF700014646 lb40600 lb3250 nmi448 kn3.76 lb$3,152

Large jets

More than 1000 Challenger 600 have been produced
  • Challenger 600
  • Falcon 2000(ER)
  • Falcon 900
  • Legacy 600/650

They typically accommodate 13-14 passengers over a 4365 nmi average range, with a $37.8M mean price.

Large Jets, 4 pax mission
ModelPricePaxLengthSpanint. Lint. WEnginesThrustMTOWRangeCruiseFuel/nmvar./hour
Embraer Legacy 600$26.0M13-1486.4 ft69.5 ft42.4 ft6.9 ft2 AE300715906 lb49604 lb3430 nm406 kt4.69 lb$3,740
Falcon 2000S/EX$28.4M10-1966.3 ft70.2 ft26.2 ft7.7 ft2 PW30014000 lb41000 lb3540 nm431 kt3.6 lb$3,150
Embraer Legacy 650$31.6M13-1486.4 ft69.5 ft42.4 ft6.9 ft2 AE300718040 lb53572 lb3919 nm415 kt4.7 lb$3,860
Challenger 650$32.4M10-1968.4 ft64.3 ft25.6 ft7.9 ft2 CF3418440 lb48200 lb4020 nm419 kt4.47 lb$3,385
Falcon 2000LXS/EX$33.7M8-1966.3 ft70.2 ft26.2 ft7.7 ft2 PW30014000 lb42800 lb4075 nm431 kt3.64 lb$3,090
Gulfstream 450$41.0M14-1989.3 ft77.8 ft37.0 ft7.3 ft2 Tay engines27700 lb74600 lb4328 nm452 kt6.03 lb$4,747
Falcon 900LX/EX$43.3M12-1966.3 ft70.2 ft33.2 ft7.7 ft3 TFE73115000 lb49000 lb4695 nm420 kt4.04 lb$3,588
Global 5000$50.4M13-1996.8 ft94.0 ft40.7 ft7.9 ft2 BR70029500 lb92500 lb5520 nm463 kt6.48 lb$5,094
Falcon 7X$53.8M12-1976.1 ft86.0 ft39.1 ft7.7 ft3 PW30019206 lb70000 lb5760 nm454 kt5.13 lb$3,850

Including long range jets:

  • Falcon 7X
  • Global Express/5000/6000
  • Gulfstream IV/G350/G450
  • Gulfstream V/G500/G550
  • Gulfstream G650(ER)

They typically accommodate 13-19 passengers over a 6731 nmi average range, with a $63.3M mean price.

Ultra Long Range Jets, 8 pax mission
ModelPricePaxLengthSpanint. Lint. WEnginesThrustMTOWRangeCruiseFuel/nmvar./hour
Dassault Falcon 8X$57.5M12-1980.3 ft86.3 ft42.7 ft7.7 ft3 PW30020166 lb73,000 lb6,450 nm454 kt5.04 lb$3,804
Gulfstream G550$61.5M16-1996.4 ft93.5 ft42.6 ft7.3 ft2 BR70030770 lb91,000 lb6,708 nm453 kt5.7 lb$4,731
Global 6000$62.3M13-1999.4 ft94.0 ft43.3 ft7.9 ft2 BR70029500 lb99,500 lb6,147 nm464 kt6.74 lb$5,150
Gulfstream G650$66.6M16-1999.8 ft99.6 ft46.8 ft8.5 ft2 BR70033800 lb99,600 lb6,912 nm481 kt5.91 lb$4,843
Gulfstream G650ER$68.7M16-1999.8 ft99.6 ft46.8 ft8.5 ft2 BR70033800 lb103,600 lb7,437 nm482 kt6.03 lb$4,848

VIP Airliners

Boeing Business Jets are the most widespread bizliners

Business Airliner can be contracted in Bizliner.Aircraft of this class include:

  • Airbus Corporate Jets
  • Boeing Business Jet
  • Embraer Lineage 1000
VIP Airliners, 4/8 pax mission
ModelPricePaxLengthSpanint. Lint. WEnginesThrustMTOWRangeCruiseFuel/nmvar./hour
Embraer Lineage 1000E$53.0M13-19118.9 ft94.2 ft84.3 ft8.8 ft2 CF3437000 lb120152 lb4602 nm446 kt9.61 lb$5,827
BBJ1 737-700 (8 pax)$71.4M19-149110.3 ft117.4 ft79.2 ft11.6 ft2 CFM5654600 lb171,000 lb6,237 nm442 kt10.72 lb$6,851
ACJ318$72.0M18-132103.2 ft111.8 ft70.2 ft12.1 ft2 CFM5646600 lb149900 lb4300 nm436 kt10.14 lb$6,573
ACJ319 (8 pax)$87.0M19-156111.0 ft111.8 ft78.0 ft12.2 ft2 CFM5654000 lb168,650 lb6,002 nm442 kt10.92 lb$6,926
BBJ2 737-800$88.8M19-189129.5 ft117.4 ft98.3 ft11.6 ft2 CFM5654600 lb174200 lb5622 nm444 kt11.37 lb$7,675
ACJ320$95.0M18-179123.3 ft111.8 ft90.3 ft12.1 ft2 CFM5654000 lb171950 lb4330 nm438 kt11.1 lb$7,965
BBJ3 737-900ER$96.5M19-215138.2 ft117.4 ft107.2 ft11.6 ft2 CFM5654600 lb187700 lb5496 nm446 kt12.37 lb$7,396

See also

  • Very light jet
  • Air Taxi Association
  • Air transports of heads of state and government
  • Supersonic business jet